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As rule, an analog signal is coded as real numbers math definition , that are usual numbers we use permanently. Let’s pay attention to “theoretical” word. Real implementations require to account other factors too. Read below about myths, where we’ll discuss, why higher sample rates are used. In simple words it is not exact math definition the Nyquist—Shannon sampling theorem may sound as:.

Below we will consider the theorem details, when More exact the theorem wording in sound terms: Endless analog sine signal may be coded to digital form and restored with sampling rate 2 times more the signal ‘s frequency.

M ore samples per finite signal duration keep more information about source signal to restore it from digital to analog form. More samples per duration, it is closer to infinity. Alternatively, the input samples may be processed via Hilbert transform. It converts real numbers to complex ones. Analog-digital converter capture full frequency band at the input. It adds noise to the coded digital signal.

But the analog filter isn’t steep enough. Also in DAC sampling rate may be increased oversampling to better work with the analog filter. Oversampling works with the digital filter in pair. There is a myth that non-multiple resampling causes more distortions, than multiple one. But in case and Hz, resampling is applied the same way. Maximum value of the word is the maximal positive value of an analog signal at ADC input. Its code is:. Minimal value of the word is maximal negative value of the analog signal at ADC input.

Rounding is bit depth reducing via removing of one or more bits with altering of reduced number according to removed bit s. Codes of analog values, stored into the words have precision limitation. The limitation is defined by total number of measured levels L. So stored codes samples are not equal exactly to real analog voltage. Quantization error is difference between sample digital value and real voltage of analog signal. The energy of quantization noise is constant in total band.

Thus, increasing of the total band of an analog signal after DAC sampling rate increasing decrease the noise level in the audible range [ It happens because audible range has a fixed width. In the digital domain quantization noise level is decreased about 6 dB for Fourier transform length 2 times more. In the digital domain, N Q is the same independently sample rate. But the Fourier transform divide digital band to parts small sub-bands. Fourier transform is converting oscillogram time domain to spectrum frequency domain.

In digital audio, we mean discrete Fourier transform in most cases. The discrete mean, that spectrum is divided to taps. FFT fast Fourier transform is case of Fourier transform. It’s length is 2 K , where K is integer number. If there are tips 2 times more, noise energy is redistributed. And each tap have energy 2 times lesser. If we make tap width as before the redistributing tap width at the part A of the picture , noise level will 2 times lesser.

Because square of noise is constant. It happens on computer display, when tap width have same pixel width on a screen. Read below more about bit depth, quantization noise and dynamic range for 16 bit implementations. But it is not so. Because “the stairs” are smoothed by analog filter at the digital-analog converter output. But that’s not exactly true.

Because the analog filter isn’t ideally “brick wall”. Half of the aliases are flipped horizontally. In ideal audio system without non-linear distortions these aliases will inaudible. In the table noted only file abilities, that author know.

If you have additional information to correct description or other, contact us. Sometimes files with same extension may contains different extensions. A reading software player, converter, editor, other parse file. As rule, file consists of data blocks. These blocks have identifiers. And the reading software recognize the block types. Sometimes the software check data integrity.

If there are non-correct data, the software may to reject file opening depend on implementation. Size compressed file types are used for saving hard disk space. Especially, it is actually for portable devices: digital audio players DAP , mobile phones, etc. Portable devices are able to playback multichannel files. But it is listened at stereo headphones, as rule. So multichannel records consume disk space to extra channels. The space extra size issue may be solving via downmixing audio files to stereo.

It is impossibly to get rid of jitter in real music systems. Because there are electromagnetic interference, non-stability of clock generators, power line interference issues. Quantization error cause non-linear distortions. It correlate with musical signal. Correlated distortions are considered as especially unwanted to perceived sound quality. Dither is extremely low level noise, that added to musical signal before ADC or before bit depth truncation prior to DAC.

To reduce noise in audible band, noise shaping may be applied. It looks like “pushing” of noise energy to upper part of frequency range. But the shaping demands of band reserve to the “pushing”. Size compression of audio content is way to save space at hard disk or increase throughput in communication line. Compression is performed by encoder and decoder software. Lossless compression is size compression when input and output binary audio data content are identical.

Lossless formats have same sound quality. There is opinion, that different sound may be there. Some objective hypotheses exists too.

But still no researches, that are famous to author. Lossless compression is size compression when input and output binary audio data content aren’t identical. Different lossy formats look for minimal losses by psychoacoustic criteria. And these compression methods are based on various hypotheses. As example, AAC format was developed to improve mp3 sound quality according newer knowledges about brain processing of sonic information [ 1 ]. From this point of view, mp3 and FLAC are “bitstream” too.

As rule, higher stream volume for single codec give better sound quality. But, other hand, higher bitrate may lead to lesser channel number in fixed band width of digital interface. As example, stereo instead multichannel. AV users asks what is use PCM or bitstream to transmit data from player to audio-video receiver of home theater. Otherwise, use bitstream codecs. Dolby is size compressed PCM. It used to transmit audio signal thru digital audio interfaces with lower speed.

If compression is lossless, it is not matter Dolby or original PCM there. Lossy compressing cause some quality losses. Generally, it is impossible to say, the losses will audible or not. Because different hardware is used there. It is common PCM in audio. Sound quality mean distortion level. However, distortions may have different distribution by frequency and phase. And distortions must be estimated in the light of psychoacoustics.

Aliases distortion appear during analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion. Sample rate define the alias period on frequency axis.

The period is half of sampling rate. All audio content above the period should be removed to avoid of distortions of useful musical signal. The analog filter makes the removing. However, analog filter isn’t steep. Bit depth define minimal noise level into record. If recorded musical stuff will digitally processed gain increasing, equalization, level normalizing, other , noise floor of processed stuff should be below DAC noise level.

In audio software, processing may be implemented in or bit float point formats. These formats have high precision low quantization noise and better overload abilities, than integer ones. As far as author know, DAC can’t receive data in float point formats. These formats are rounded to integer into playback software to send to DAC. DAC with sigma delta modulator are able to receive float point formats. But author know nothing about such real implementations.

It give base to myth that Hz is maximally reasonable sample rate. And there is opinion, that higher sampling rates aimed for ultrasound playback, that we can’t hear. Nyquist theorem, indeed, says that analog sine may be coded to digital PCM and restored back to analog without loses. But it is ideal concept, that require infinite time of recording and playback and ideal brickwall filter. Narrow transient band is difficult for analog filter. Steeper digital filter, more intensive its ringing distortions.

Also may be technical resource limitations to build steep enough filter. Inside DAC upsampling with digital filter is used for proper filter work. But hardware may have calculation resource limitation to implement sophisticated filter. We know that human hear sonic in range To keep sound quality signal must be higher noise. We can take noise level about dB as allowable. Digital audio data may be corrupted in transmitting or at storage.

It can be checked via checksum comparison. Audiophile players are capable to bit-perfect playback of audio files: audio file content is sent to DAC without altering. CD ripper is kind of audio converter that capable to copy CD audio data to file. PCM mode provides sound quality without quality losses. This codec transmit sound data without losses of sound quality. We can convert analog audio to digital one various ways.

PCM one of the ways. Most recommended output type is HDMI due to better abilities for multichannel hi-res sound streaming. It provides the best sound quality. So, compressed audio format may be required. Especially for mulichannel signals.

It provides lossless sound quality. Some of PCM formats support high quality audio. Dolby Digital is family of size-compressed PCM audio formats. The interface is a little dated, but this app is fast, configurable, and perhaps most importantly, free.

While it’s not the only free player on this list, it is the only one that resembles a traditional lightweight media player. Once the component is installed, this becomes an even more powerful audio player. This information is especially handy if you already know and love Foobar Download : Foobar Free.

Jriver is software that tries to do many things for a lot of people. Fortunately, it seems to do a good job at almost everything it aims to do. There are several features here that seem obvious but are lacking in other players. One example is the optional audiophile-grade crossfeed. The developers say this makes listening on headphones sound more natural and less fatiguing, since it’s more like what you’d hear from speakers in a room.

While most examples of hi-res music player software focus on sound quality alone, Roon focuses on something else. The developers say that something has been lost in the transition to digital music.

To bring back the feeling of engagement you’d get from poring over liner notes, Roon aims to present a searchable magazine of your music. Roon doesn’t just apply this technique to music stored on your computer. It can do this to music played from a local NAS or even streamed from Tidal as well.

If music isn’t a background activity to you but something you want to engage in, Roon may be worth trying there’s a free trial. If you proudly declare yourself an audiophile to anyone who will listen, this may be the perfect software for you. Developed by self-described “fanatical audiophiles,” this software aims to optimize everything to deliver the audio signal from the source to your DAC in the highest quality possible.

Like Hysolid, this isn’t a player. Instead, it’s a server. Once it’s up and running, you can use it with any UPnP-compatible app or hardware. This aims to reduce background noise created by your PC. It does this by eliminating jitter-producing processes and threads.

This means you might not want to use your computer for much else during playback, but it will sound fantastic. Finding the right hi-res music player app is great, but it doesn’t mean much if you don’t have hi-res music to listen to.

These apps will play your MP3 collection as well, but if you’ve got a great audio setup, you’ll get more out of it by buying high-quality audio.


Roon, Audirvana, Jriver, Plex, etc What Do I Choose? | Steve Hoffman Music Forums – 1. Hysolid

If you can access Windows emulation like Parallels, you should consider trying trial J River for Windows with free version of Fidelizer. replace.me › audirvana-vs-jriver.


Why did you choose JRiver?

If you can access Windows emulation like Parallels, you should consider trying trial J River for Windows with free version of Fidelizer. replace.me › audirvana-vs-jriver.